Due to the greenhouse gases, the increase in the temperature of the earth at the world level is called global warming. Although thermal change is not a new phenomenon on Earth. Prior to this, substantial thermal change had occurred in the Carboniferous and Pleistocene periods, but that change is the result of Earth’s internal processes.
What is Global Warming?
Global warming refers to the long-term increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans. This phenomenon is primarily caused by the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide into the atmosphere, mostly from human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and industrial processes.
For example, the trend of thermal increase at the time of intense earthquakes and the tendency of thermal decrease after earthquakes have been observed, but at present, thermal changes are the result of human intervention and the pace of change is fast. It is such an action contrary to ecology, in response to which the problem of ecological imbalance has arisen.
Global warming is a significant environmental challenge that requires urgent action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the impacts of climate change.
Discuss Global Warming
According to WMO, the world temperature has increased by 0.5°C in the 20th century. According to the survey conducted in 1989 AD, the average temperature of the world increased by 0.23°C only between 1951-1980 AD. According to the same study, if this trend of global warming continues, then by 2050, the average temperature of the world may increase by 4°C.
Global warming was seriously discussed for the first time at the Rio Summit (1992). Due to the huge differences in the approach of developed and developing countries, it was decided that further special conferences would be organized on this and it was also decided that the Quito International Conference would be organized in 1997 under the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change policy.
According to this convention, control of carbon emissions is necessary to control the rising temperature of the world, and the greenhouse gas level of 1990 was considered the reference level for the world climate. That is, in comparison to 1990 AD in the climate of the world, the thermal increase has to be kept only up to 0.5°C.
But scientists presented a special report to UNEP (United Nations Environmental Program) and WMO in January 2001, in which the Berlin Declaration of 1995 was said to be impractical (The Berlin Declaration of 1995 said that the temperature would increase by 3 ° by the 20th century ). But at the present time, it was told that the minimum increase will be 1.4°C and the maximum increase will be 5.8°C.
The prospect of a minimal increase is bleak. The control of carbon emissions has been eclipsed by the inability of countries such as the USA to agree to the Kyoto Protocol.
If the trend of increase in global temperature continues, then by the end of this century, the sea level may increase by 2-3 meters, which will not only reduce the continental area but can also pose a serious challenge to the ecosystem and the biosphere.
The main cause of global warming is the emission of greenhouse gases. According to UNEP’s 1997 report, on average every year greenhouse gas emissions reach 5.5 billion tons of harmful gases like carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere.
If control programs are not implemented, this emission could be 10.5 billion tons in 2050. Even if the program is implemented according to the Quito convention, this emission will remain at 5.6 billion tons per year. Greenhouse gas emissions are mainly done by developed countries. Countries like the USA, Russia, Germany, and Japan mainly emit it.
If we look at per capita emissions, the USA has 5.3 tons, Russia 2.9 tons, Japan 2.4 tons, Germany 2.9 tons and China 0.7 tons, and India 0.3 tons.
The main reason for the heavy emission of greenhouse gases is the destruction of forests. Only 16% of the area in the world is forest and now on an average 1.48 lakh square km per year. Forests are being destroyed in the areas.
Another major reason is the indiscriminate use of fossil energy. The development of industry and means of transport and new methods of youth level have led to a huge increase in the consumption of commercial energy, which leads to more emissions of greenhouse gases.
The specialty of these gases is that they allow short rays of light to reach the surface of the earth. But they block the long waves i.e. terrestrial radiation. As a result, the Earth’s temperature budget becomes unbalanced. As a general rule, the amount of energy that the Earth’s surface receives from solar radiation.
It releases the same amount of energy into outer space through the process of terrestrial radiation, but due to the increase of greenhouse gases, the returning energy is obstructed. The period of its residence in the earth’s system increases and the result of this increase is global warming.
Consequences/Impacts/effects of global warming?
The effect of thermal rise can be seen in many ways. The most prominent effect is that the trend of sea level rise has already started. There are two reasons for this increase. Firstly, continental glaciers and ice sheets have started melting.
The second is that there is a possibility of an increase in the water level due to the increase in temperature due to the spread of the water level, that is, due to the decrease in the density of the sea water level. Many problems can arise due to an increase in water level. Many islands in the world will be submerged. Maldives, Nauru, Marshall Islands between Africa and Asia may be completely extinct.
If there is an increase of 3 meters in the sea level, then the settlement of 15 million people in Bangladesh will be in danger. There is a possibility of its impact in India as well.
According to the Ministry of Environment, if there is an increase of only 1 meter in the sea water rise, then 4.84% of the area of the state of Goa will be submerged, affecting 7.25% of the population. Similarly, if this increase is up to 3 meters, then 2/3 part of the Lakshadweep group will be submerged. The rising temperature will affect the tourism industries of many countries including India.
The tundra and alpine biospheres are fast becoming endangered due to the melting of glacial load ice sheets. In coastal areas like Paltor and Grahak Lassad of the Antarctic continent, due to the melting of ice, land blocks have started appearing.
In India too, the Gangotri and Yamunotri glaciers are retreating 22-23 meters on an average per year. The thermal effect is also affecting the biological diversity of the world. many lives in danger and many living beings have reached the brink of destruction. By 2030, the life of penguins and krill (fish) may be endangered.
The destruction of system organisms has started. Due to the increase in temperature, the frequency of floods has increased in many forest areas. Occurrence of forest fires due to thermal rise in Indonesia, Malaysia, USA, India, and many savanna countries.
The problem of an increase in barren land and a decline in the water table has emerged. Therefore, it is clear from the above analysis that due to the increase in temperature, many problems have arisen for the ecological system on the Earth system. This is the reason why efforts are being made to reduce global warming globally.
For the first time, a collective effort has been made in this context at the Rio Conference. After this, in the Berlin conference and the Kyoto conference respectively, it has been resolved to start efforts to control the thermal rise, but for this, it is necessary that not only.